Homer’s Odyssey Redux in the DC Circuit

Posted on August 3, 2015 by Paul Seals

In the latest chapter of Homer’s Odyssey, the DC Circuit, on remand from the Supreme Court, determined that EPA had exceeded its statutory authority by imposing uniform emissions reductions under the Transport Rule also known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.  On July 28, 2015, the DC Circuit held in EME Homer City Generation, L.P v. EPA that the 2014 sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions budgets for Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas, as well as the 2014 ozone-season nitrogen oxide (NOx) budgets for Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia are invalid.  The court remanded without vacatur to EPA for reconsideration.

A brief history of Homer’s voyage so far.

In 2011, EPA promulgated the Transport Rule to address emissions from upwind States that contribute to nonattainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in a downwind State under the Clean Air Act’s “good neighbor provision”.  42 U.S.C. Sec. 7410(a)(2)(D)(i).  Upwind States challenged the Rule, contending that it would lead to over-control of emissions in the upwind States.  The Rule imposed uniform pollution reductions on upwind States regardless of the actual amount of pollution that individual upwind States contributed to the downwind States.

In 2012, the DC Circuit considered these over-control challenges, agreed with the petitioners, and vacated the Rule.   See EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA, 696 F/3d 7 (D.C. Cir. 2012)

On review, the Supreme Court reversed, holding that the potential for over-control did not require invalidation of the Rule on its face.  To address potential over-control in an upwind State, the Court recognized that requiring emissions reductions by more than is necessary to achieve attainment in every downwind State to which it is linked would be impermissible.  The Court explicitly authorized an upwind State to contest the emissions reductions under the Rule through “particularized, as-applied challenges.”  EPA v. EME Homer City Generation, L.P., 134 S.Ct. 1584 (2014).

On remand, the DC Circuit considered the “as-applied challenges” as informed by the Supreme Court decision.   The DC Circuit evaluated the challenges by determining whether a downwind location would still attain its NAAQS if linked upwind States were subject to less stringent emissions limits.   Based on the record, the Court determined that EPA’s uniform cost thresholds have required States to reduce pollutants beyond the point necessary to achieve downwind attainment, which violated the Supreme Court’s clear mandate.

Although invalidating the 2014 emissions budgets, the DC Circuit remanded without vacatur.   The Court stated that on remand, the parties may provide new evidence, data, or calculations for EPA to consider in establishing emissions budgets.

What will be the next chapter in this Odyssey?  What effect will the decision have on the emissions trading market developed around the 2014 emissions budget?  Will there be further appeals?  How and when will EPA reconsider the emissions budgets?

The voyage is not over!

Homer's Odyssey Continues Without Cooperative Federalism

Posted on April 30, 2014 by Paul Seals

On April 29, 2014, Justice Ginsburg delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court in EPA v. EME Homer City Generation, L.P., 572 U.S._(2014) reversing the DC Circuit’s decision regarding the Transport Rule, also known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR), a rulemaking designed to address the significant contribution of upwind States to nonattainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards in downwind States under the Good Neighbor Provision of the Clean Air Act (CAA).   In addition to upholding EPA’s cost-effective allocation of air pollutant emission reductions among upwind States as a permissible interpretation of the Good Neighbor Provision, the majority held that the CAA does not compel EPA to provide States with an opportunity to file a SIP after EPA has quantified the State’s interstate pollution obligations.  This opinion is a severe blow to cooperative federalism.

In the majority opinion, cooperative federalism was relegated to a single footnote, which was surprising given the issues for which certiorari was granted.  The second issue addressed in the briefs and argument – whether states are excused from adopting state implementation plans prohibiting emissions that “contribute significantly” to air pollution problems in other states until after the EPA has adopted a rule quantifying each state’s inter-state pollution obligations – provided the Supreme Court with an opportunity to address the relative health of cooperative federalism and whether the federalism bar should be raised or lowered in the context of the CAA. 

Justice Ginsburg’s footnote addressed Justice Scalia’s dissenting opinion in which he criticized the majority for “making hash of the Clean Air Act, transforming it from a program based on cooperative federalism to one of centralized federal control.”  EPA’s promulgation of federal implementation plans without providing the States with a meaningful opportunity to perform the emissions reductions through state implementation plans is inconsistent with the core principle and regulatory strategy of cooperative federalism embedded in the CAA – air pollution control at its source is the primary responsibility of States and local governments.   

Homer’s Odyssey continues.  For the next chapter, his ship will not sail under the fair winds of cooperative federalism.