Posted on February 29, 2012 by Deborah Jennings
In the wake of expected Greenhouse Gas New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Electric Generating Units pursuant to Section 111 of the Clean Air Act, Congress has shown some early resistance. On November 4, 2011, EPA submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) its proposed rule for regulatory review. The proposed rule would require new and modified electric utilities to meet potentially stringent performance standards and emissions guidelines for greenhouse gases at a level that has been “adequately demonstrated” by existing technology. 42 U.S.C. § 7411(a)(1). Although the stringency of such standards is uncertain, they could require installation of expensive technology controls for fossil fuel combustion power plants.
In response, a group of 221 Congressmen submitted a letter on February 23, 2012 to OMB urging the White House to bar EPA from issuing its proposed NSPS rule. The letter cited, among other things, concerns that the rules could require installation of costly technology, such as carbon-capture and storage, which they feared would increase electricity costs. The 221 figure is significant, because it constitutes a majority of the House of Representatives, who along with the Senate, could pass a resolution overturning the rule (with Presidential approval or Congressional override of a veto) under the Congressional Review Act (CRA), 5 U.S.C. §§ 801-808.
Yet, history suggests it is very unlikely that Congress will reverse an EPA climate change regulation using the Congressional Review Act. For starters, the CRA allows Congress to pass a disapproval resolution seeking to reverse a recently promulgated federal regulation by a simple majority vote (no filibusters) within 60 days of receiving the final rule or its date of publication in the federal register. Thus, Congress has a very short-time frame to pass such resolutions in both the House and the Senate. Moreover, the President can still veto the disapproval resolution. At that point, Congress would need a two-thirds majority to override the veto. In fact, Congress has only successfully used the CRA once, overturning a Department of Labor rulemaking on ergonomics passed in the waning days of the Clinton Administration.
Such a scenario could shape up this time around. EPA originally planned on issuing the proposed utility standards in July 2011 and the final standards in May 2012. Since EPA has yet to issue its proposed rule, a final rule may not be expected until late 2012 or early 2013, at the conclusion of President Obama’s first term.