Posted on October 23, 2012 by Robert Kirsch
The technique known as hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), especially in the context of developing natural gas, continues to generate controversy, legal fees and emotion. The question remains as to whether the technique itself presents any unusual risk to the environment or natural resources. What is clear, however, is the political significance of fracturing and the challenges that our polarized, political dialog presents to achieving a rational result in or from the fracturing debate.
On the federal side, the Administration has taken steps in order to represent to voters that the President has done what he could to see that hydraulic fracturing occurs in a manner that does not threaten the environment. Concrete steps are taking place in three Agencies.
– BLM has issued draft regulations relating to fracturing activities taking place on federal lands. The proposal drew thousands of comments and no action is likely until well after the election.
– EPA issued draft guidance proposing to regulate hydraulic fracturing under the UIC program. This proposal also resulted in thousands of comments, all but precluding any chance that EPA will be in a position to act until well after the election.
– EPA is continuing its study into the possible connection between hydraulic fracturing and underground sources of drinking water. A partial report reflecting some retrospective analysis is due before year end, but the meat of the report will not be available until 2014.
– EPA continues to pursue its general investigation into the way fracturing occurs through its investigation into 9 fracturing companies. EPA has proposed to publish information reflecting well densities and chemical use relatively soon.
– EPA has reviewed and is continuing to review petitions filed by environmental organizations seeking to force the Agency to take steps to regulate fracturing under various regulatory programs, including TSCA. EPA has denied some of the relief sought, but is collecting information under some and beginning its evaluation of others.
– At the regional level, EPA has engaged in studies when citizen pressure has suggested a connection between fracturing and contaminated drinking water. This has proven to be an area where EPA has not maintained consistency or scientific integrity. The agency’s work at Dimmock, Pavillion and elsewhere has resulted principally in controversy and criticism, and has done little to advance the state of knowledge about fracturing.
– DOE Secretary Chu has been an Administration spokesman for White House efforts to coordinate the many federal entities that seem to be working on fracturing issues. His role has been above the weeds and the fact that a Secretary charged with overseeing national energy policy, if there is one, is the Administration’s front man, appears to be a bone to those suggesting the sole interest of the President is in making energy development more difficult.
– Within DOA, the Forest Service has sent mixed signals with respect to whether fracturing is viewed as posing risks to other resources. While several forests have adopted plans anticipating the development of resources within their jurisdiction, including by fracturing, the George Washington National Forest plan remains under review, having proposed to ban fracturing in its initial draft release.
– The USGS recently has entered the fray in connections with published concerns linking fracturing and increased seismic activity. Preliminary indications suggest the true focus of such efforts may be long term injection wells, rather than transient fracturing activities, but there is more to follow on this topic.
The federal role in the fracturing debate also has occurred in courts. Environmental interest groups recently have begun to raise fracturing activities in a number of lawsuits challenging the adequacy of the environmental reviews conducted in connection with federal leases. Many such cases are making their way through the courts, and are being watched for the decisions..
In his public statements, the President, of course, has been careful to promote the safe development of natural gas resources, including by fracturing. He has offered what generally have been viewed as favorable statements in his state of the union address, and more recently in his remarks at the Democratic National Convention. Of course none of those favorable comments has slowed any of the developments noted above, nor were the President’s remarks necessarily inconsistent with such action.
There is much resistance to the above federal efforts from states, and from industry which has had decades of experience accommodating state regulators in connection with drilling and developing wells. States too have been active, to varying degrees, with some devising thoughtful programs balancing the needs of developers with the concerns of some members of the public. The politicization of the issue also has reached the states, however, and nowhere is it more in evidence than in the glacial SGEIS process that has been under way for years, with no regulations on the horizon. There also have been intrastate efforts directed at fracturing by the Susquehanna River and Delaware River Basin Commissions, with the former moving forward with water management programs while the latter has, by default, banned fracturing until a compromise is agreed upon among the member sovereign constituencies.
And – don’t expect the controversy and misunderstandings surrounding fracturing to disappear soon. In addition to a small scale advocacy film last year, Hollywood is entering the fray with a major film slated for release in the not-too-distant future. Television already has managed to capitalize on the drama fracturing offers in more than one series.
Things will change after the election. Stay tuned to find out how.