December 18, 2008


Posted on December 18, 2008 by John Crawford

On March 27, 2008, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the final Ozone NAAQS Rule which requires airborne concentrations of ozone to be lowered from 80 ppb (actually 84 ppb due to rounding allowances) to 75 ppb for both primary and secondary standards. Industrial and manufacturing groups balked at the more stringent standard, claiming it was unnecessary and would place an undue hindrance on economic development. In opposition to this viewpoint, environmental groups contend that the new standard fails to adequately protect human health and the environment and that the standard should be lower.

Not surprisingly, due to the contrasting views, the standard was challenged. Asserting that the Ozone NAAQS Rule was too stringent, the State of Mississippi filed a Petition for Review,  in Mississippi v. EPA, No. 08-1200 (D.C. Cir., filed May 23, 2008). Shortly thereafter, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources and a number of trade/industrial groups intervened on behalf of Mississippi. Environmental groups, led by the American Lung Association, Appalachian Mountain Club and Natural Resources Defense Council, also filed a challenge to the ozone standard in American Lung Association v. EPA, No. 08-1203 (D.C. Cir.) which was later consolidated with the Mississippi case.

The various arguments, both for and against the standard, have not yet been briefed. In fact, Harold Pizzetta, lead attorney for the State of Mississippi, has stated that the two sides have yet to come to an agreement on a briefing schedule, leading one to conclude that there is likely very little the two camps will agree on.  

The question as to why Mississippi led the charge/challenge against the new ozone standard is an interesting one. While current data suggest the new standard will have direct impacts on only 13 of Mississippi’s 82 counties, the counties impacted are among the leaders in the state’s economy. Among those Mississippi counties that would not meet the 75 ppb standard are DeSoto County, the state’s and one of the nation’s fast growing counties, and Jackson County, home to the state’s largest employer and numerous other manufacturing facilities. Mr. Pizzetta believes the cost of compliance with the standard – while specifically not a factor the Court may consider – provides justification for the state’s challenge.  Additionally, Pizzetta stated that scientific evidence suggests that the data used by EPA in setting the standard was flawed.   Moreover, Mississippi’s leaders believe the 75 ppb standard will be met in the short term if the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is implemented. To that end, the state has joined with some of the same groups and entities that it opposes in the ozone litigation and requested that the D.C. Circuit stay the vacatur of CAIR.   

In opposition to Mississippi’s argument, the environmental groups will likely point to the work by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) which recommended that the primary ozone standard be set within the range of 60 – 70 ppb.   In addition, it’s believed that EPA originally sought to set the standard within this range and was overruled by the White House.   Thus, EPA is left in a precarious situation in that the agency must justify why its standard is neither too strict nor too lenient.   The current view by a number of environmental litigators is that the current litigation will be decided on the scientific evidence and not on a constitutional argument, as the 1997 ozone NAAQS litigation was in the American Trucking case.

In regard to the actual timeframes for action set forth in the ozone rule, states must make initial designations of attainment/non-attainment by March 2009, with EPA making final designations by March 2010. Thereafter, State Implementation Plans (SIPs) must be submitted to EPA by 2013, with attainment to be achieved between 2014 and 2030, depending on severity. Based on the movement of the existing litigation, it’s doubtful a decision will be made prior to the time period set for final designations. Additionally, litigants do not believe the court will enter a stay of the new rule. 

As a result, states will be left with no choice but to make designations in conformity with the 75 ppb standard.

Article written by:   

            Gary Rikard

            Michael Caples

            Butler, Snow, O’Mara, Stevens & Cannada, PLLC

            P.O. Box 22567
            Jackson, MS 39225-2567

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