Posted on March 11, 2011 by Thomas Lavender, Jr.
In cases of first and second impression, federal district courts in South Carolina and California have now ruled on the bona fide prospective purchase (“BFPP”) defense following its enactment in 2002 and EPA’s subsequent “all appropriate inquiries” (“AAI”) implementing regulations in 2006. In Ashley II of Charleston, L.L.C. v. PCS Nitrogen, Inc., Judge Seymour of the District of South Carolina undertook an exhaustive 55-page examination of the facts surrounding the purchase by Ashley II of several parcels from various owners. In the more succinct decision of 3000 E. Imperial, LLC, v. Robertshaw Controls Co., et al., Judge Anderson of the Central District of California addressed the divisibility of harm in connection with a purchaser’s cost recovery action against the seller under CERCLA §107(a) and also addressed the plaintiff’s BFPP status.
In a lengthy discussion of the history of the site, the Court examined the involvement of each of the prior owners as well as the actions of Ashley II in determining whether the harm was divisible. Ultimately, the Court determined that the harm was not divisible; however, the Court did construct a basis for allocating liability. Of particular note was the Court’s extensive analysis of the bona fide prospective purchaser status of Ashley II; but also of interest were the Court’s holdings on the issue of contractual indemnifications and release agreements.
One thing that the Court failed to give any attention to was the Consent Agreement entered into between the State of South Carolina and Ashley II. This document bears some resemblance to the State’s Brownfield non-responsible party contracts. This document attempted to establish Ashley II as a non-responsible party and afforded it contribution protection.
Ultimately, the Court set forth an allocation of the response costs by percentage attributable to each party, with Ashley II bearing its allocation along with those for which it had indemnified.
3000 E. Imperial
The California District Court’s decision came on the heels of the Ashley II decision. Obviously, the history of the 3000 E. Imperial site was less complex. There, the Court discussed at some length the testimony of two competing experts on when the USTs in questions were likely to have resulted in a release. The Court then examined divisibility of harm in conjunction with the Burlington decision and considering the elements of § 433A of the Restatement (Second) of Torts. Ultimately, the Court concluded that the defendant’s claim for divisibility was insufficient. The Court then turned to the defendant’s counterclaim for § 107 cost recovery as a PRP. Obviously, the plaintiff had claimed that it was not a PRP by virtue of its status as a BFPP. Following a brief examination of the plaintiff’s actions following closing and a fleeting reference to “appropriate care,” the Court concluded that the plaintiff did take “reasonable steps” to prevent further releases and was entitled to BFPP status.